Phosphorus is a naturally-occurring element that is critical for animal and plant life functions.  Phosphorous compounds form the helical skeleton of DNA! It is found in animal urine and excreta, in bones, guano, in mineral rock, and is a key ingredient in many fertilizers. It is also found in innumerable manufactured compounds we use every day, from detergents to herbicides to steel.

In the environment, excess phosphorus run-off from fertilized lawns and farmland and sewage discharge can lead to too much plant and algae growth in streams, rivers, lakes, and the ocean. This "eutrophication" uses up available oxygen dissolved in the water, killing off higher forms of aquatic animal life.

Monitoring phosphorus discharge is commonly required for industrial and municipal waste water treatment plants.  Phosphorus tests are also frequently used by lakes and streams monitoring programs as a general measure of health (see EPA's Monitoring and Assessing - Phosphorus)

What MEL Tests routinely tests for:

TOTAL PHOSPHORUS -  Includes the total amount of all forms of phosphorus in solution (reactive) and in particulate form.

DISSOLVED PHOSPHOROUS  - All of the phosphorus present in the filtrate of a sample filtered through a phosphorus-free filter of 0.45 micron pore size and measured by the persulfate digestion procedure.

ORTHOPHOSPHATE  - The form of phosphorus that is immediately available for use by algae and other aquatic plants for growth, aka "Reactive Phosphorus", is
dissolved inorganic phosphate (orthophosphate).

HYDROLYZABLE PHOSPHOROUS  - As measured by the sulfuric acid hydrolysis procedure and minus predetermined dissolved orthophosphates.

AVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS  - Available P = (Total P) – (Citrate insoluble P).  Used in solids testing like wood ash, bio-solids and compost (AOAC Method 2.044)


Health Limits - for WHITE Phosphorus (the toxic substance produced from phosphorus-containing rocks)

Maine Maximum Exposure Guideline for Drinking Water (MEG): 0.1 ppb (= 0.1 ug/L)

United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA Health Advisory (DW): 0.1 ppb (= 0.1 ug/L)

Additional Resources

National Aquatic Resource Surveys / Indicators: Phosphorus

Toxic Substances Portal: "White Phosphorus" (website)

BACK TO BASICS: "The Phosphorous Cycle", Khan Academy (video, 5:30)

MEL Test Methods for Phosphorus

Aqueous:  EPA 365.3 (NPDES compliant)

Total and Available Phosphorous (solids): EPA 6010 B or C (RCRA compliant)

Sample Requirements


Container: plastic, glass; 250 mL

Hold times:

Total P:  28 days

Ortho-P: 48 hours


Total P: preserved with 1:1 H2SO4 to pH < 2 and cooled to <6°C. Add approximately 2 mL per 500 mL sample.

Ortho-P: field filtered* and cooled to <6°C.

Available-P: cool to to <6°C.

*Filtration in field: dissolved forms of phosphorus and ortho-phosphate are analyzed after filtration with a 0.45 um disc filter (preferably within 15 minutes of sampling and prior to preservation).


Container: Plastic, glass

Hold Time: 6 months

Preservation: n/a

Image result for eutrophication maine sabattus

Algal blooms in Sabattus Pond. By Natural Resources Council of Maine, 2013.

Phosphorus-containing fluorapatite from Mount Apatite in Auburn, Maine (from JohnBetts Fine Minerals)

Phosphorus-containing fluorapatite from Mount Apatite in Auburn, Maine (from JohnBetts Fine Minerals)