Maine Environmental Laboratory tests a variety of wood materials.
The most frequent samples we see are some variant of construction or demolition debris (aka "CDD" or "C&D"). This is wood subject to testing under Maine Waste Management Rules Chapter 418: Beneficial Use of Solid Wastes before being accepted as an alternative fuel in energy-producing furnaces. Railroad ties and utility poles also fall into this category.
For homeowners, we also test wooden playground and household materials for arsenic, lead, or other ingredients.
Maine DEP Solid Waste Management website: http://www.maine.gov/dep/waste/solidwaste/
Maine DEP Beneficial Use of Solid Waste Applications and Forms
Maine Waste Management Rules, Chapter 418: Beneficial Use of Solid Wastes (CDD wood testing requirements on p. 11)
Maine Waste Management Rules, Chapter 405: Water Quality Monitoring, Leachate Monitoring, and Waste Characterization (how to sample CDD, and what tests are required, p. 27):
Maine DEP Application for Beneficial Use of Solid Waste as a Fuel: www.maine.gov/dep/waste/solidwaste/.../418apfs.doc
Maine Renewable Energy Association (trade group): http://www.renewablemaine.org/
An oldie but goodie offering a national overview (1998): EPA Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition (C & D) Debris in The United States (pdf, 94 pages)